Evil documentation

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Evil documentation

Evil 1.15.0, Jan 07, 2022

Eivind Fonn, Frank Fischer, Vegard Øye

Copyright © 2011-2019, Eivind Fonn, Frank Fischer, Vegard Øye


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1 Overview

Evil is an extensible vi layer for Emacs. It emulates the main features of Vim, 1 turning Emacs into a modal editor. Like Emacs in general, Evil is extensible in Emacs Lisp.


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1.1 Installation via package.el

Evil is available as a package from MELPA stable, MELPA unstable and NonGNU ELPA. This is the recommended way of installing Evil.

To set up package.el to work with one of the MELPA repositories, you can follow the instructions on melpa.org2.

Alternatively you can use NonGNU ELPA. It is part of the default package archives as of Emacs 28. For older Emacs versions you’ll need to add it yourself:

(add-to-list 'package-archives
             (cons "nongnu" (format "http%s://elpa.nongnu.org/nongnu/"
                                    (if (gnutls-available-p) "s" ""))))

Once that is done, you can execute the following commands:

M-x package-refresh-contents
M-x package-install RET evil RET

Finally, add the following lines to your Emacs init file:

(require 'evil)
(evil-mode 1)

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1.2 Manual installation

First, install goto-chg and cl-lib. If you have an Emacs version of 24.3 or newer, you should already have cl-lib.

Evil lives in a git repository. To download Evil, do:

git clone --depth 1 https://github.com/emacs-evil/evil.git

Then add the following lines to your Emacs init file:

(add-to-list 'load-path "path/to/evil")
(require 'evil)
(evil-mode 1)

Ensure that your replace path/to/evil with the actual path to where you cloned Evil.


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1.3 Modes and states

The next time Emacs is started, it will come up in `normal state', denoted by <N> in the mode line. This is where the main vi bindings are defined. Note that you can always disable normal state with C-z, which switches to an “Emacs state” (denoted by <E>) in which vi keys are completely disabled. Press C-z again to switch back to normal state.

state

Evil uses the term `state' for what is called a “mode” in regular vi usage, because `modes' are understood in Emacs terms to mean something else.

Evil defines a number of states by default:

normal state (<N>)

This is the default “resting state” of Evil, in which the main body of vi bindings are defined.

insert state (<I>)

This is the state for insertion of text, where non-modified keys will insert the corresponding character in the buffer.

visual state (<V>)

A state for selecting text regions. Motions are available for modifying the selected region, and operators are available for acting on it.

replace state (<R>)

A special state mostly similar to insert state, except it replaces text instead of inserting.

operator-pending state (<O>)

A special state entered after launching an operator, but before specifying the corresponding motion or text object.

motion state (<M>)

A special state useful for buffers that are read-only, where motions are available but editing operations are not.

Emacs state (<E>)

A state that as closely as possible mimics default Emacs behaviour, by eliminating all vi bindings, except for C-z, to re-enter normal state.


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2 Settings

Evil’s behaviour can be adjusted by setting some variables. The list of all available variables and their current values can be inspected by doing:

M-x customize-group RET evil RET

To change the value of a variable, you can use this interface, or add a setq form to your Emacs init file, preferably before Evil is loaded. 3

(setq evil-shift-width 0)
;; Load Evil
(require 'evil)

What follows is a non-exhaustive list of the most relevant customization options.


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2.1 The initial state

The initial state of a buffer is determined by its major mode. Evil maintains an association between major modes and their corresponding states, which is most easily modified using the function evil-set-initial-state.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-set-initial-state MODE STATE)

Set the initial state for major mode `MODE' to `STATE'. This is the state the buffer comes up in.

If no state can be found, Evil uses the default initial state.

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-default-state

The default Evil state. This is the state a buffer starts in when it is not otherwise configured (see evil-set-initial-state and evil-buffer-regexps). The value may be one of normal, insert, visual, replace, operator, motion and emacs.

Default: normal

Alternatively, it is possible to select the initial state based on the buffer `name' rather than its major mode. This is checked first, so it takes precedence over the other methods for setting the state.

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-buffer-regexps

Regular expressions determining the initial state for a buffer. Entries have the form (REGEXP . STATE), where `REGEXP' is a regular expression matching the buffer’s name and `STATE' is one of normal, insert, visual, replace, operator, motion, emacs and nil. If `STATE' is nil, Evil is disabled in the buffer.

Default: (("^ \\*load\\*"))


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2.2 Keybindings and other behaviour

Evil comes with a rich system for modifying its key bindings Keymaps. For the most common tweaks, the following variables are available.

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-toggle-key

The key used to change to and from Emacs state. Must be readable by read-kbd-macro. For example: “C-z”.

Default: "C-z"

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-want-C-i-jump

Whether C-i jumps forward in the jump list (like Vim). Otherwise, C-i inserts a tab character.

Default: t

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-want-C-u-delete

Whether C-u deletes back to indentation in insert state. Otherwise, C-u applies a prefix argument. The binding of C-u mirrors Emacs behaviour by default due to the relative ubiquity of prefix arguments.

Default: nil

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-want-C-u-scroll

Whether C-u scrolls up (like Vim). Otherwise, C-u applies a prefix argument. The binding of C-u mirrors Emacs behaviour by default due to the relative ubiquity of prefix arguments.

Default: nil

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-want-C-d-scroll

Whether C-d scrolls down (like Vim).

Default: t

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-want-C-w-delete

Whether C-w deletes a word in Insert state.

Default: t

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-want-C-w-in-emacs-state

Whether C-w prefixes windows commands in Emacs state.

Default: nil

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-want-Y-yank-to-eol

Whether Y yanks to the end of the line. The default behavior is to yank the whole line, like Vim.

Default: nil

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-disable-insert-state-bindings

Whether insert state bindings should be used. Bindings for escape, delete and evil-toggle-key are always available. If this is non-nil, default Emacs bindings are by and large accessible in insert state.

Default: nil


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2.3 Search

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-search-module

The search module to be used. May be either isearch, for Emacs’ isearch module, or evil-search, for Evil’s own interactive search module. N.b. changing this will not affect keybindings. To swap out relevant keybindings, see evil-select-search-module function.

Default: isearch

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-regexp-search

Whether to use regular expressions for searching in / and ?.

Default: t

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-search-wrap

Whether search with / and ? wraps around the buffer. If this is non-nil, search stops at the buffer boundaries.

Default: t

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-flash-delay

Time in seconds to flash search matches after n and N.

Default: 2

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-ex-hl-update-delay

Time in seconds of idle before updating search highlighting. Setting this to a period shorter than that of keyboard’s repeat rate allows highlights to update while scrolling.

Default: 0.02


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2.4 Indentation

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-auto-indent

Whether to auto-indent when opening lines with o and O.

Default: t, buffer-local

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-shift-width

The number of columns by which a line is shifted. This applies to the shifting operators > and <.

Default: 4, buffer-local

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-shift-round

Whether shifting rounds to the nearest multiple. If non-nil, > and < adjust line indentation to the nearest multiple of evil-shift-width.

Default: t, buffer-local

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-indent-convert-tabs

If non-nil, the = operator converts between leading tabs and spaces. Whether tabs are converted to spaces or vice versa depends on the value of indent-tabs-mode.

Default: t


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2.5 Cursor movement

In standard Emacs terms, the cursor is generally understood to be located between two characters. In Vim, and therefore also Evil, this is the case in insert state, but in other states the cursor is understood to be `on' a character, and that this character is not a newline.

Forcing this behaviour in Emacs is the source of some potentially surprising results (especially for traditional Emacs users—users used to Vim may find the default behavior to their satisfaction). Many of them can be tweaked using the following variables.

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-repeat-move-cursor

Whether repeating commands with . may move the cursor. If nil, the original cursor position is preserved, even if the command normally would have moved the cursor.

Default: t

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-move-cursor-back

Whether the cursor is moved backwards when exiting insert state. If non-nil, the cursor moves “backwards” when exiting insert state, so that it ends up on the character to the left. Otherwise it remains in place, on the character to the right.

Default: t

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-move-beyond-eol

Whether the cursor can move past the end of the line. If non-nil, the cursor is allowed to move one character past the end of the line, as in Emacs.

Default: nil

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-cross-lines

Whether horizontal motions may move to other lines. If non-nil, certain motions that conventionally operate in a single line may move the cursor to other lines. Otherwise, they are restricted to the current line. This applies to h, SPC, f, F, t, T, ~.

Default: nil

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-respect-visual-line-mode

Whether movement commands respect visual-line-mode. If non-nil, visual-line-mode is generally respected when it is on. In this case, motions such as j and k navigate by visual lines (on the screen) rather than “physical” lines (defined by newline characters). If nil, the setting of visual-line-mode is ignored.

This variable must be set before Evil is loaded.

Default: nil

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-track-eol

Whether $ “sticks” the cursor to the end of the line. If non-nil, vertical motions after $ maintain the cursor at the end of the line, even if the target line is longer. This is analogous to track-eol, but respects Evil’s interpretation of end-of-line.

Default: t

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-start-of-line

Analogue of vim’s startofline. If nil, preserve column when making relevant movements of the cursor. Otherwise, move the cursor to the start of the line.

Default: nil


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2.6 Cursor display

A state may change the appearance of the cursor. Use the variable evil-default-cursor to set the default cursor, and the variables evil-normal-state-cursor, evil-insert-state-cursor etc. to set the cursors for specific states. The acceptable values for all of them are the same.

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-default-cursor

The default cursor. May be a cursor type as per cursor-type, a color string as passed to set-cursor-color, a zero-argument function for changing the cursor, or a list of the above.

Default: t


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2.7 Window management

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-auto-balance-windows

If non-nil window creation and deletion trigger rebalancing.

Default: t

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-split-window-below

If non-nil split windows are created below.

Default: nil

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-vsplit-window-right

If non-nil vertically split windows with are created to the right.

Default: nil


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2.8 Parenthesis highlighting

These settings concern the integration between Evil and show-paren-mode. They take no effect if this mode is not enabled.

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-show-paren-range

The minimal distance between point and a parenthesis which causes the parenthesis to be highlighted.

Default: 0

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-highlight-closing-paren-at-point-states

The states in which the closing parenthesis at point should be highlighted. All states listed here highlight the closing parenthesis at point (which is Vim’s default behavior). All others highlight the parenthesis before point (which is Emacs default behavior). If this list contains the symbol not then its meaning is inverted, i.e. all states listed here highlight the closing parenthesis before point.

Default: (not emacs insert replace)


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2.9 Miscellaneous

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-want-fine-undo

Whether actions are undone in several steps. There are two possible choices: nil (“no”) means that all changes made during insert state, including a possible delete after a change operation, are collected in a single undo step. Non-nil (“yes”) means that undo steps are determined according to Emacs heuristics, and no attempt is made to aggregate changes.

For backward compatibility purposes, the value fine is interpreted as nil. This option was removed because it did not work consistently.

Default: nil

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-undo-system

Undo system Evil should use. If equal to undo-tree or undo-fu, those packages must be installed. If equal to undo-tree, undo-tree-mode must also be activated. If equal to undo-redo, Evil uses commands natively available in Emacs 28.

Default: nil

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-backspace-join-lines

Whether backward delete in insert state may join lines.

Default: t

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-kbd-macro-suppress-motion-error

Whether left/right motions signal errors in keyboard macros. This variable only affects beginning-of-line or end-of-line errors regarding the motions h and SPC respectively. This may be desired since such errors cause macro definition or execution to be terminated. There are four possibilities:

Default: nil

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-mode-line-format

The position of the state tag in the mode line. If set to before or after, the tag is placed at the beginning or the end of the mode-line, respectively. If nil, there is no tag. Otherwise it should be a cons cell (WHERE . WHICH), where `WHERE' is either before or after, and `WHICH' is a symbol in mode-line-format. The tag is then placed before or after that symbol, respectively.

Default: before

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-mouse-word

The `thing-at-point' symbol for double click selection. The double-click starts visual state in a special word selection mode. This symbol is used to determine the words to be selected. Possible values are evil-word or evil-WORD.

Default: evil-word

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-bigword

The set of characters to be interpreted as WORD boundaries. This is enclosed with square brackets and used as a regular expression. By default, whitespace characters are considered WORD boundaries.

Default: "^ \t\r\n", buffer-local

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-esc-delay

The time, in seconds, to wait for another key after escape. If no further event arrives during this time, the event is translated to ESC. Otherwise, it is translated according to input-decode-map. This does not apply in Emacs state, and may also be inhibited by setting evil-inhibit-esc.

Default: 0.01

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-intercept-esc

Whether Evil should intercept the escape key. In the terminal, escape and a meta key sequence both generate the same event. In order to distingush these, Evil uses input-decode-map. It is not necessary to do this in a graphical Emacs session. However, if you prefer to use C-[ as escape (which is identical to the terminal escape key code), this interception must also happen in graphical Emacs sessions. Set this variable to always, t (only in the terminal) or nil (never intercept).

Default: always

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-kill-on-visual-paste

Whether pasting in visual state adds the replaced text to the kill ring, making it the default for the next paste. The default, replicates the default Vim behavior.

Default: t

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-echo-state

Whether to signal the current state in the echo area.

Default: t

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-complete-all-buffers

Whether completion looks for matches in all buffers. This applies to C-n and C-p in insert state.

Default: t

Emacs Lisp Autovariable: evil-want-empty-ex-last-command

Whether to default to evil-ex-previous-command at empty ex prompt.

Default: t


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3 Keymaps

Evil’s key bindings are stored in a number of different keymaps. Each state has a `global keymap', where the default bindings for that state are stored. They are named evil-normal-state-map, evil-insert-state-map, and so on. The bindings in these maps are visible in all buffers currently in the corresponding state.

These keymaps function like ordinary Emacs keymaps and may be modified using the Emacs function define-key:

(define-key evil-normal-state-map (kbd "w") 'some-function)

This binds the key w to the command some-function in normal state. The use of kbd is optional for simple key sequences, like this one, but recommended in general.

Most of Evil’s bindings are defined in the file evil-maps.el.

To facilitate shared keybindings between states, some states may activate keybindings from other states as well. For example, motion state bindings are visible in normal and visual state, and normal state bindings are also visible in visual state.

Each state also has a `buffer-local keymap' which is specific to the current buffer, and which takes precedence over the global keymap. These maps are most suitably modified by a mode hook. They are named evil-normal-state-local-map, evil-insert-state-local-map, and so on.

(add-hook 'some-mode-hook
          (lambda ()
            (define-key evil-normal-state-local-map
                        (kbd "w") 'some-function)))

For convenience, the functions evil-global-set-key and evil-local-set-key are available for setting global and local state keys.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-global-set-key STATE KEY DEF)

Bind `KEY' to `DEF' in `STATE'.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-local-set-key STATE KEY DEF)

Bind `KEY' to `DEF' in `STATE' in the current buffer.

The above examples could therefore have been written as follows:

(evil-global-set-key 'normal (kbd "w") 'some-function)

(add-hook 'some-mode-hook
          (lambda ()
            (evil-local-set-key 'normal (kbd "w") 'some-function)))

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3.1 evil-define-key

Evil provides the macro evil-define-key for adding state bindings to ordinary keymaps. It is quite powerful, and is the preferred method for fine-tuning bindings to activate in specific circumstances.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-define-key STATE KEYMAP KEY DEF [BINDINGS...])

Create a `STATE' binding from `KEY' to `DEF' for `KEYMAP'. `STATE' is one of normal, insert, visual, replace, operator, motion, emacs, or a list of one or more of these. Omitting a state by using nil corresponds to a standard Emacs binding using define-key. The remaining arguments are like those of define-key. For example:

(evil-define-key 'normal foo-map "a" 'bar)

This creates a binding from a to bar in normal state, which is active whenever foo-map is active. Using nil for the state, the following lead to identical bindings:

(evil-define-key nil foo-map "a" 'bar)
(define-key foo-map "a" 'bar)

It is possible to specify multiple states and/or bindings at once:

(evil-define-key '(normal visual) foo-map
  "a" 'bar
  "b" 'foo)

If foo-map has not been initialized yet, this macro adds an entry to after-load-functions, delaying execution as necessary.

`KEYMAP' may also be a quoted symbol. If the symbol is global, the global evil keymap corresponding to the state(s) is used, meaning the following lead to identical bindings:

(evil-define-key 'normal 'global "a" 'bar)
(evil-global-set-key 'normal "a" 'bar)

The symbol local may also be used, which corresponds to using evil-local-set-key. If a quoted symbol is used that is not global or local, it is assumed to be the name of a minor mode, in which case evil-define-minor-mode-key is used.

There follows a brief overview of the main functions of this macro.

The macro evil-define-key can be used to augment existing modes with state bindings, as well as creating packages with custom bindings. For example, the following will create a minor mode foo-mode with normal state bindings for the keys w and e:

(define-minor-mode foo-mode
  "Foo mode."
  :keymap (make-sparse-keymap))

(evil-define-key 'normal 'foo-mode "w" 'bar)
(evil-define-key 'normal 'foo-mode "e" 'baz)

This minor mode can then be enabled in any buffers where the custom bindings are desired:

(add-hook 'text-mode-hook 'foo-mode)  ; enable alongside text-mode

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3.2 Leader keys

Evil supports a simple implementation of Vim’s `leader' keys. To bind a function to a leader key you can use the expression <leader> in a key mapping, e.g.

(evil-define-key 'normal 'global (kbd "<leader>fs") 'save-buffer)

Likewise, you can use the expression <localleader> to mimic Vim’s local leader, which is designed for mode-specific key bindings.

You can use the function evil-set-leader to designate which key acts as the leader and the local leader.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-set-leader STATE KEY [LOCALLEADER])

Set `KEY' to trigger leader bindings in `STATE'. `KEY' should be in the form produced by kbd. `STATE' is one of normal, insert, visual, replace, operator, motion, emacs, a list of one or more of these, or nil, which means all of the above. If `LOCALLEADER' is non-nil, set the local leader instead.


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4 Hooks

A `hook' is a list of functions that are executed when certain events happen. Hooks are modified with the Emacs function add-hook. Evil provides entry and exit hooks for all its states. For example, when switching from normal state to insert state, all functions in evil-normal-state-exit-hook and evil-insert-state-entry-hook are executed.

It is guaranteed that the exit hook will be executed before the entry hook on all state switches.

During the hook execution, the variables evil-next-state and evil-previous-state contain information about the states being switched to and from, respectively.


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5 Extension

The main functionality of Evil is implemented in terms of reusable macros. Package writers can use these to define new commands.


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5.1 Motions

A `motion' is a command which moves the cursor, such as w or e. Motions are defined with the macro evil-define-motion. Motions not defined in this way should be declared with evil-declare-motion.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-declare-motion COMMAND)

Declare `COMMAND' to be a movement function. This ensures that it behaves correctly in visual state.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-define-motion MOTION (COUNT ARGS...) DOC [[KEY VALUE]...] BODY...)

Define a motion command `MOTION'. `ARGS' is a list of arguments. Motions can have any number of arguments, but the first (if any) has the predefined meaning of count. `BODY' must execute the motion by moving point.

Optional keyword arguments are:

For example, this is a motion that moves the cursor forward by a number of characters:

(evil-define-motion foo-forward (count)
  "Move to the right by COUNT characters."
  :type inclusive
  (forward-char (or count 1)))

The `type' of a motion determines how it works when used together with an operator. Inclusive motions include the endpoint in the range being operated on, while exclusive motions do not. Line motions extend the whole range to linewise positions, effectively behaving as if the endpoint were really at the end of the line. Blockwise ranges behave as a “rectangle” on screen rather than a contiguous range of characters.


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5.2 Operators

An operator is a command that acts on the text moved over by a motion, such as c (change), d (delete) or y (yank or copy, not to be confused with “yank” in Emacs terminology which means `paste').

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-define-operator OPERATOR (BEG END ARGS...) DOC [[KEY VALUE]...] BODY...)

Define an operator command `OPERATOR'. The operator acts on the range of characters `BEG' through `END'. `BODY' must execute the operator by potentially manipulating the buffer contents, or otherwise causing side effects to happen.

Optional keyword arguments are:

For example, this is an operator that performs ROT13 encryption on the text under consideration:

(evil-define-operator evil-rot13 (beg end)
  "ROT13 encrypt text."
  (rot13-region beg end))

Binding this to g? (where it is by default) will cause a key sequence such as g?w to encrypt from the current cursor to the end of the word.


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5.3 Text objects

Text objects are like motions in that they define a range over which an operator may act. Unlike motions, text objects can set both a beginning and an endpoint. In visual state, text objects alter both ends of the selection.

Text objects are not directly usable in normal state. Instead, they are bound in the two keymaps evil-inner-text-ojects-map and evil-outer-text-objects-map, which are available in visual and operator-pending state under the keys i and a respectively.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-define-text-object OBJECT (COUNT) DOC [[KEY VALUE]...] BODY...)

Define a text object command `OBJECT'. `BODY' should return a range (BEG END) to the right of point if `COUNT' is positive, and to the left of it if negative.

Optional keyword arguments:

For eample, this is a text object which selects the next three characters after the current location:

(evil-define-text-object foo (count)
  "Select three characters."
  (list (point) (+ 3 (point))))

For convenience, Evil provides several functions returning a list of positions which can be used for defining text objects. All of them follow the convention that a positive `count' selects text after the current location, while negative `count' selects text before it.

Note: The `thingatpt' library is used quite extensively in Evil to define text objects, and this dependency leaks through in the following functions. A `thing' in this context is any symbol for which there is a function called forward-THING 4 which moves past a number of `things'.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-select-inner-object THING BEG END TYPE [COUNT LINE])

Return an inner text object range of `COUNT' objects. If `COUNT' is positive, return objects following point; if `COUNT' is negative, return objects preceding point. If one is unspecified, the other is used with a negative argument. `THING' is a symbol understood by `thing-at-point'. `BEG', `END' and `TYPE' specify the current selection. If `LINE' is non-nil, the text object should be linewise, otherwise it is character wise.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-select-an-object THING BEG END TYPE COUNT [LINE])

Return an outer text object range of `COUNT' objects. If `COUNT' is positive, return objects following point; if `COUNT' is negative, return objects preceding point. If one is unspecified, the other is used with a negative argument. `THING' is a symbol understood by `thing-at-point'. `BEG', `END' and `TYPE' specify the current selection. If `LINE' is non-nil, the text object should be linewise, otherwise it is character wise.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-select-paren OPEN CLOSE BEG END TYPE COUNT [INCLUSIVE])

Return a range (BEG END) of `COUNT' delimited text objects. `OPEN' and `CLOSE' specify the opening and closing delimiter, respectively. `BEG' `END' `TYPE' are the currently selected (visual) range. If `INCLUSIVE' is non-nil, `OPEN' and `CLOSE' are included in the range; otherwise they are excluded.

The types of `OPEN' and `CLOSE' specify which kind of THING is used for parsing with evil-select-block. If `OPEN' and `CLOSE' are characters evil-up-paren is used. Otherwise `OPEN' and `CLOSE' must be regular expressions and evil-up-block is used.

If the selection is exclusive, whitespace at the end or at the beginning of the selection until the end-of-line or beginning-of-line is ignored.


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5.4 Range types

A `type' is a transformation acting on a pair of buffer positions. Evil defines the types inclusive, line, block and exclusive, which are used for motion ranges and visual selection. New types may be defined with the macro `evil-define-type'.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-define-type TYPE DOC [[KEY FUNC]...])

Define type `TYPE'. `DOC' is a general description and shows up in all docstrings.

Optional keyword arguments:

If further keywords and functions are specified, they are assumed to be transformations on buffer positions, like :expand and :contract.


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5.5 States

States are defined with the macro evil-define-state, which takes care to define the necessary hooks, keymaps and variables, as well as a toggle function evil-NAME-state and a predicate function evil-NAME-state-p for checking whether the state is active.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-define-state STATE DOC [[KEY VAL]...] BODY...)

Define an Evil state `STATE'. `DOC' is a general description and shows up in all docstrings; the first line of the string should be the full name of the state.

`BODY' is executed each time the state is enabled or disabled.

Optional keyword arguments:

The global keymap of this state will be evil-test-state-map, the local keymap will be evil-test-state-local-map, and so on.

For example:

(evil-define-state test
  "Test state."
  :tag " <T> "
  (message (if (evil-test-state-p)
               "Enabling test state."
             "Disabling test state.")))

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6 Frequently Asked Questions


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6.1 Problems with the escape key in the terminal

A common problem when using Evil in terminal mode is a certain delay after pressing the escape key. Even more, when pressing the escape key followed quickly by another key the command is recognized as M-<key> instead of two separate keys: ESC followed by <key>. In fact, it is perfectly valid to simulate M-<key> by pressing ESC <key> quickly (but see below).

The reason for this is that in terminal mode a key sequence involving the meta key (or alt key) always generates a so called “escape sequence”, i.e. a sequence of two events sent to Emacs, the first being ESC and the second the key pressed simultaneously. The problem is that pressing the escape key itself also generates the ESC event. Thus, if Emacs (and therefore Evil) receives an ESC event there is no way to tell whether the escape key has been pressed (and no further event will arrive) or a M-<key> combination has been pressed (and the <key> event will arrive soon). In order to distinguish both situations Evil does the following. After receiving an ESC event Evil waits for a short time period (specified by the variable evil-esc-delay which defaults to 0.01 seconds) for another event. If no other event arrives Evil assumes that the plain escape key has been pressed, otherwise it assumes a M-<key> combination has been pressed and combines the ESC event with the second one. Because a M-<key> sequence usually generates both events in very quick succession, 0.01 seconds are usually enough and the delay is hardly noticeable by the user.

If you use a terminal multiplexer like `tmux' or `screen' the situation may be worse. These multiplexers have exactly the same problem recognizing M-<key> sequences and often introduce their own delay for the ESC key. There is no way for Evil to influence this delay. In order to reduce it you must reconfigure your terminal multiplexer.

Note that this problem should not arise when using Evil in graphical mode. The reason is that in this case the escape key itself generates a different command, namely escape (a symbol) and hence Evil can distinguish whether the escape key or a M-<key> combination has been pressed. But this also implies that pressing ESC followed by <key> cannot be used to simulate M-<key> in graphical mode!


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6.2 Underscore is not a word character

An underscore _ is a word character in Vim. This means that word motions like w skip over underlines in a sequence of letters as if it was a letter itself. In contrast, in Evil the underscore is often a non-word character like operators, e.g. +.

The reason is that Evil uses Emacs’ definition of a word and this definition does often not include the underscore. In Emacs word characters are determined by the syntax-class of the buffer. The syntax-class usually depends on the major-mode of this buffer. This has the advantage that the definition of a “word” may be adapted to the particular type of document being edited. Evil uses Emacs’ definition and does not simply use Vim’s definition in order to be consistent with other Emacs functions. For example, word characters are exactly those characters that are matched by the regular expression character class [:word:].

If you would be satisfied by having the * and # searches use symbols instead of words, this can be achieved by setting the evil-symbol-word-search variable to t.

If you want the underscore to be recognised as word character for other motions, you can modify its entry in the syntax-table:

(modify-syntax-entry ?_ "w")

This gives the underscore the ‘word’ syntax class. You can use a mode-hook to modify the syntax-table in all buffers of some mode, e.g.:

(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook
          (lambda () (modify-syntax-entry ?_ "w")))

This gives the underscore the word syntax-class in all C-like buffers.

Similarly to Emacs’ definition of a word, the definition of a “symbol” is also dependent on the syntax-class of the buffer, which often includes the underscore. The default text objects keymap associates kbd::o with the symbol object, making kbd::cio a good alternative to Vim’s kbd::ciw, for example. The following will swap between the word and symbol objects in the keymap:

(define-key evil-outer-text-objects-map "w" 'evil-a-symbol)
(define-key evil-inner-text-objects-map "w" 'evil-inner-symbol)
(define-key evil-outer-text-objects-map "o" 'evil-a-word)
(define-key evil-inner-text-objects-map "o" 'evil-inner-word)

This will not change the motion keys, however. One way to make word motions operate as symbol motions is to alias the evil-word `thing' 5 to the evil-symbol thing:

(defalias 'forward-evil-word 'forward-evil-symbol)

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7 Internals


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7.1 Command properties

Evil defines `command properties' to store information about commands 6, such as whether they should be repeated. A command property is a :keyword with an associated value, e.g. :repeat nil.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-add-command-properties COMMAND [PROPERTIES...])

Add `PROPERTIES' to `COMMAND'. `PROPERTIES' should be a property list. To replace all properties at once, use evil-set-command-properties.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-set-command-properties COMMAND [PROPERTIES...])

Replace all of `COMMAND'’s properties with `PROPERTIES'. `PROPERTIES' should be a property list. This erases all previous properties; to only add properties, use evil-set-command-property.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-get-command-properties COMMAND)

Return all Evil properties of `COMMAND'. See also evil-get-command-property.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-get-command-property COMMAND PROPERTY [DEFAULT])

Return the value of Evil `PROPERTY' of `COMMAND'. If the command does not have the property, return `DEFAULT'. See also evil-get-command-properties.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-define-command COMMAND (ARGS...) DOC [[KEY VALUE]...] BODY...)

Define a command `COMMAND'.

For setting repeat properties, use the following functions:

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-declare-repeat COMMAND)

Declare `COMMAND' to be repeatable.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-declare-not-repeat COMMAND)

Declare `COMMAND' to be nonrepeatable.

Emacs Lisp Autofunction: (evil-declare-change-repeat COMMAND)

Declare `COMMAND' to be repeatable by buffer changes rather than keystrokes.


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8 The GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

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Emacs lisp functions and variables


Footnotes

(1)

(1) Vim is the most popular version of `vi', a modal text editor with many implementations. Vim also adds some functions of its own, like visual selection and text objects. For more information see the official Vim website.

(2)

https://melpa.org/#/getting-started

(3)

(1) Strictly speaking, the order only matters if the variable affects the way Evil is loaded. This is the case with some variables.

(4)

(1) There are many more ways that a `thing' can be defined, but the definition of forward-THING is perhaps the most straightforward way to go about it.

(5)

(1) Many of Evil’s text objects and motions are defined in terms of the `thingatpt' library, which in this case are defined entirely in terms of forward-THING functions. Thus aliasing one to another should make all motions and text objects implemented in terms of that `thing' behave the same.

(6)

(1) In this context, a `command' may mean any Evil motion, text object, operator or indeed other Emacs commands, which have not been defined through the Evil machinery.